These are time tested devices used for full control of the teeth. They bond to the front surface of the teeth. Their advantages are that they are inexpensive, have quick treatment times, and are easier to use. On the other hand they are relatively un-aesthetic.
These are tooth-coloured brackets which are made of ceramic or composite. They can be fully aesthetic or have a metal slot and/or clip. Their advantages are that they are easy to use, aesthetic, adhere very well, but on the other hand due to increased friction between wires and the slots they are marginally slower to work. The wires used can be aesthetic or white, Teflon-coated wires can be used. These types of brackets do stain with regards to curries, tea, and red wine. These brackets are also bulkier as they need to compensate for not having metal grade strength.
These are state-of-the-art brackets from recent developments in orthodontics. They are bonded behind the teeth and are invisible to the public. They have different and difficult mechanical techniques; the patient has to be able to open wide for this procedure to be done. They are completely aesthetic and more sensitive to mechanical movements. They do affect speech and are more uncomfortable in the early stages.
These are fixed or removable appliances which are used to correct malocclusions by using facial musculature causing dental (and slight skeletal) change. These are exclusively for children between 9-14 years old. The patients usually have increased or reduced overjet. Over jets are corrected at a rate of 1mm per month on average. They are usually used for a period of 6-9 months with or without fixed appliances (braces).
At the end of all orthodontic treatment, there is a need for retaining the result. This is usually considered to be permanent but will be considered per patient. Retainers are used to do this and would be placed as soon as the treatment is over. Two types are present; these include fixed retainers or removable retainers. Removable retainers are basically a clear plastic mould of the teeth and the fixed retainers are a small thin wire adhered behind the teeth. Retention for perfection is permanent.